Rating

To help debt and fixed income investors better evaluate the risk of any given investment, the capital market uses the publicly available independent assessments of rating agencies.

Through regular discussions with the senior management of companies, rating agencies gain an insight into the strategy and planning of the companies that they rate. Using this information as a base, supplemented by quantitative analysis, rating agencies evaluate the creditworthiness of the issuer companies through a system of rating classifications. Companies which want to raise money in the capital markets in the form of bonds, commercial paper and other debt instruments normally need a minimum of one or better two ratings.

The leading international rating agencies are Standard & Poor's, Moody's Investors Service, Fitch Ratings and DBRS.

国内偷拍国内精品视频Scope Ratings AG (Scope) is a privately-held rating agency based in Berlin, with offices in Frankfurt, London, Madrid, Milan, Oslo and Paris. Scope specialises in the analysis and ratings of financial institutions, corporates, structured finance, project finance and public finance. Scope Ratings AG is a credit rating agency registered in accordance with the EU rating regulation and operating in the European Union with ECAI status.

  Standard &
Poor's
Moody's Fitch DBRS Scope
long-term rating A A2 A- A A
outlook negative negative stable stable stable
short-term rating A-1 P-1 F1 R-1 (low) S-1

The higher the rating classification, the smaller is the potential risk that a company cannot meet its debt obligations (interest and principal). The debt investor charges a higher rate of interest for financing a higher risk. Thus a company with a strong rating can raise capital more advantageously than a company which has a less favourable rating. Additionally, the outlook given by a rating agency provides a supplementary reference point for the investor in assessing the probable development of the rating.

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